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Prisoners, Lovers, & Spies

Pdf Prisoners, Lovers, & Spies
Genre History
Author Kristie Macrakis
Isbn 0300188250
File size 1125 kb
Year 2014-03-28
Pages 392
Language English
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This “engrossing study” of invisible ink reveals 2,000 years of scoundrels, heroes and their ingenious methods for concealing messages (Kirkus). In Prisoners, Lovers, and Spies, Kristie Macrakis uncovers the secret history of invisible ink and the ingenious way everything from lemon juice to Gall-nut extract and even certain bodily fluids have been used to conceal and reveal covert communications. From Ancient Rome to the Cold War, spies have been imprisoned or murdered, adultery unmasked, and battles lost because of faulty or intercepted secret messages. Yet, successfully hidden writing has helped save lives, win battles, and ensure privacy—at times changing the course of history. Macrakis combines a storyteller’s sense of drama with a historian’s respect for evidence in this page-turning history of intrigue and espionage, love and war, magic and secrecy. From Ovid’s advice to use milk for illicit love notes, to John Gerard's dramatic escape from the Tower of London aided by orange juice ink messages, to al-Qaeda’s hidden instructions in pornographic movies, this book charts the evolution of secret messages and their impact on history. An appendix includes kitchen chemistry recipes for readers to try out at home.

Continuum Mechanics Through the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Pdf Continuum Mechanics Through the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Genre Science
Author Gérard A. Maugin
Isbn 3319053744
File size 374 kb
Year 2014-04-04
Pages 269
Language English
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Conceived as a series of more or less autonomous essays, the present book critically exposes the initial developments of continuum thermo-mechanics in a post Newtonian period extending from the creative works of the Bernoullis to the First World war, i.e., roughly during first the “Age of reason” and next the “Birth of the modern world”. The emphasis is rightly placed on the original contributions from the “Continental” scientists (the Bernoulli family, Euler, d’Alembert, Lagrange, Cauchy, Piola, Duhamel, Neumann, Clebsch, Kirchhoff, Helmholtz, Saint-Venant, Boussinesq, the Cosserat brothers, Caratheodory) in competition with their British peers (Green, Kelvin, Stokes, Maxwell, Rayleigh, Love,..). It underlines the main breakthroughs as well as the secondary ones. It highlights the role of scientists who left essential prints in this history of scientific ideas. The book shows how the formidable developments that blossomed in the twentieth century (and perused in a previous book of the author in the same Springer Series: “Continuum Mechanics through the Twentieth Century”, Springer 2013) found rich compost in the constructive foundational achievements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The pre-WWI situation is well summarized by a thorough analysis of treatises (Appell, Hellinger) published at that time. English translations by the author of most critical texts in French or German are given to the benefit of the readers.

Mechanics and Natural Philosophy before the Scientific Revolution

Pdf Mechanics and Natural Philosophy before the Scientific Revolution
Genre Science
Author Walter Roy Laird,Sophie Roux
Isbn 1402059671
File size 426 kb
Year 2008-01-01
Pages 320
Language English
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This volume deals with a variety of moments in the history of mechanics when conflicts arose within one textual tradition, between different traditions, or between textual traditions and the wider world of practice. Its purpose is to show how the accommodations sometimes made in the course of these conflicts ultimately contributed to the emergence of modern mechanics.

The Grand Design

Pdf The Grand Design
Genre Science
Author Stephen Hawking,Leonard Mlodinow
Isbn 0553907077
File size 1008 kb
Year 2010-09-07
Pages 208
Language English
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#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER When and how did the universe begin? Why are we here? What is the nature of reality? Is the apparent “grand design” of our universe evidence of a benevolent creator who set things in motion—or does science offer another explanation? In this startling and lavishly illustrated book, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow present the most recent scientific thinking about these and other abiding mysteries of the universe, in nontechnical language marked by brilliance and simplicity. According to quantum theory, the cosmos does not have just a single existence or history. The authors explain that we ourselves are the product of quantum fluctuations in the early universe, and show how quantum theory predicts the “multiverse”—the idea that ours is just one of many universes that appeared spontaneously out of nothing, each with different laws of nature. They conclude with a riveting assessment of M-theory, an explanation of the laws governing our universe that is currently the only viable candidate for a “theory of everything”: the unified theory that Einstein was looking for, which, if confirmed, would represent the ultimate triumph of human reason.

The Every Day Book of History and Chronology

Pdf The Every Day Book of History and Chronology
Genre Fiction
Author Joel Munsell
Isbn
File size 476 kb
Year 2019-12-05
Pages 1172
Language English
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"The Every Day Book of History and Chronology" by Joel Munsell. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

Curiosities of Olden Times

Pdf Curiosities of Olden Times
Genre Fiction
Author S. Baring-Gould
Isbn
File size 606 kb
Year 2019-11-22
Pages 311
Language English
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"Curiosities of Olden Times" by S. Baring-Gould. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time

Pdf The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time
Genre Science
Author Craig Callender
Isbn 0191559385
File size 1435 kb
Year 2011-04-07
Pages 704
Language English
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As the study of time has flourished in the physical and human sciences, the philosophy of time has come into its own as a lively and diverse area of academic research. Philosophers investigate not just the metaphysics of time, and our experience and representation of time, but the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially with regard to quantum mechanics and relativity theory. This Handbook presents twenty-three specially written essays by leading figures in their fields: it is the first comprehensive collaborative study of the philosophy of time, and will set the agenda for future work.

The Greatest Works of Winston Churchill

Pdf The Greatest Works of Winston Churchill
Genre Biography & Autobiography
Author Winston Churchill
Isbn 8027242118
File size 837 kb
Year 2018-03-21
Pages 5785
Language English
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Musaicum Books presents to you this meticulously edited Winston Churchill collection: Introduction: Winston Spencer Churchill by Richard Harding Davis The Influenza Novel: Savrola Biographies: Lord Randolph Churchill Marlborough: His Life and Times Historical Works: The Story of the Malakand Field Force The River War London to Ladysmith via Pretoria Ian Hamilton's March My African Journey The World Crisis 1911–1914 The Second World War The Gathering Storm Their Finest Hour A History of the English-Speaking Peoples The Birth of Britain The New World Essays & Articles: Painting as a Pastime Zionism versus Bolshevism Fifty Years Hence East London General Bullar's Headquarters Mr. Winston Churchill's Capture Speeches: Liberalism and the Social Problem The Conduct of the War by Sea Speech in the London Opera House Speech in the Tournament Hall, Liverpool First Radio Address as Prime Minister Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat Be Ye Men of Valour We Shall Fight on the Beaches Their Finest Hour The Few – Never was so Much Owed by so Many to so Few Broadcast on the Soviet-German War Never Give In, Never, Never, Never Winston Churchill's address to the United States Congress The Price of Greatness is Responsibility Announcement of the Surrender of Germany Sinews of Peace – The Iron Curtain Speech Letters of Winston Churchill My Early Life – A Roving Commission (An Autobiography)

Mechanics of Continuous Media and Analysis of Structures

Pdf Mechanics of Continuous Media and Analysis of Structures
Genre Technology & Engineering
Author R. Valid
Isbn 0080984614
File size 1088 kb
Year 2012-12-02
Pages 372
Language English
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Mechanics of Continuous Media and Analysis of Structures is a six-chapter book that begins by elucidating the mechanics of solid continuous media. The text then describes the finite elements method, which undoubtedly dominates the methods used for structural analysis. Subsequent chapters explain the variational principles in linear elasticity, vibration of linear structure, non-linear deformations, and the shell theory. This book will be valuable to all those who need certain theoretical developments in mechanics, including mechanical engineers, economists, and mathematicians.

Companion to the History of Modern Science

Pdf Companion to the History of Modern Science
Genre History
Author G N Cantor,G.N. Cantor,J.R.R. Christie,M.J.S. Hodge,R.C. Olby
Isbn 100010754X
File size 1179 kb
Year 2020-10-07
Pages 1108
Language English
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The 67 chapters of this book describe and analyse the development of Western science from 1500 to the present day. Divided into two major sections - 'The Study of the History of Science' and 'Selected Writings in the History of Science' - the volume describes the methods and problems of research in the field and then applies these techniques to a wide range of fields. Areas covered include: * the Copernican Revolution * Genetics * Science and Imperialism * the History of Anthropology * Science and Religion * Magic and Science. The companion is an indispensable resource for students and professionals in History, Philosophy, Sociology and the Sciences as well as the History of Science. It will also appeal to the general reader interested in an introduction to the subject.

The English Galileo

Pdf The English Galileo
Genre Science
Author Matthias Schemmel
Isbn 1402054998
File size 1482 kb
Year 2008-09-16
Pages 766
Language English
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The English Galileo—the title of this book draws on the extraordinary prominence of Galileo Galilei in the historiography of the early modern Scienti?c Revolution. At the same time it questions the uniqueness of Galileo (not as a person, of course, but as an early modern phenomenon) by proclaiming another ?gure of his kind: Thomas H- riot. But putting Harriot on a pedestal next to Galileo is not a concern of this book, which is rather motivated by questions of the following kind: How did modern s- ence come about? What were the processes of knowledge and concept transformation that led from premodern to modern science, and, more speci?cally, from preclassical to classical mechanics? Which aspects of these developments rely on the peculiarities of particular historical actors and what aspects re?ect more general characteristics of the knowledge system at the time and its potentials for development? To answer such questions it is obviously necessary to complement the existing studies on Galileo’s science with studies on the work of his lesser-known contemporaries; and it is imp- tant that these studies are carried out in similar detail to make the different prota- nists’ work comparable. Without such comparison—this is the basic assumption of this book—our understanding of the shared knowledge of early modern thinking and the processes of knowledge transformation from which modern science emerged will remain incomplete and biased.

Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton

Pdf Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton
Genre Science
Author G. Freudenthal
Isbn 9400945000
File size 1704 kb
Year 2012-12-06
Pages 288
Language English
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In this stimulating investigation, Gideon Freudenthal has linked social history with the history of science by formulating an interesting proposal: that the supposed influence of social theory may be seen as actual through its co herence with the process of formation of physical concepts. The reinterpre tation of the development of science in the seventeenth century, now widely influential, receives at Freudenthal's hand its most persuasive statement, most significantly because of his attention to the theoretical form which is charac teristic. of classical Newtonian mechanics. He pursues the sources of the parallels that may be noted between that mechanics and the dominant philosophical systems and social theories of the time; and in a fascinating development Freudenthal shows how a quite precise method - as he descriptively labels it, the 'analytic-synthetic method' - which underlay the Newtonian form of theoretical argument, was due to certain interpretive premisses concerning particle mechanics. If he is right, these depend upon a particular stage of con ceptual achievement in the theories of both society and nature; further, that the conceptual was generalized philosophically; but, strikingly, Freudenthal shows that this concept-formation itself was linked to the specific social relations of the times of Newton and Hobbes.

The Idea of Progress

Pdf The Idea of Progress
Genre History
Author J. B. Bury
Isbn 1531263429
File size 676 kb
Year 2018-03-04
Pages 393
Language English
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We may believe in the doctrine of Progress or we may not, but in either case it is a matter of interest to examine the origins and trace the history of what is now, even should it ultimately prove to be no more than an idolum saeculi, the animating and controlling idea of western civilisation. For the earthly Progress of humanity is the general test to which social aims and theories are submitted as a matter of course. The phrase CIVILISATION AND PROGRESS has become stereotyped, and illustrates how we have come to judge a civilisation good or bad according as it is or is not progressive. The ideals of liberty and democracy, which have their own ancient and independent justifications, have sought a new strength by attaching themselves to Progress. The conjunctions of "liberty and progress," "democracy and progress," meet us at every turn. Socialism, at an early stage of its modern development, sought the same aid. The friends of Mars, who cannot bear the prospect of perpetual peace, maintain that war is an indispensable instrument of Progress. It is in the name of Progress that the doctrinaires who established the present reign of terror in Russia profess to act. All this shows the prevalent feeling that a social or political theory or programme is hardly tenable if it cannot claim that it harmonises with this controlling idea...

Schrödinger’s Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics

Pdf Schrödinger’s Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics
Genre History
Author Michael Bitbol
Isbn 9400917724
File size 1454 kb
Year 2012-12-06
Pages 292
Language English
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This book is the final outcome of two projects. My first project was to publish a set of texts written by Schrodinger at the beginning of the 1950's for his seminars and lectures at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. These almost completely forgotten texts contained important insights into the interpretation of quantum mechanics, and they provided several ideas which were missing or elusively expressed in SchrOdinger's published papers and books of the same period. However, they were likely to be misinterpreted out of their context. The problem was that current scholarship could not help very much the reader of these writings to figure out their significance. The few available studies about SchrOdinger's interpretation of quantum mechanics are generally excellent, but almost entirely restricted to the initial period 1925-1927. Very little work has been done on Schrodinger's late views on the theory he contributed to create and develop. The generally accepted view is that he never really recovered from his interpretative failure of 1926-1927, and that his late reflections (during the 1950's) are little more than an expression of his rising nostalgia for the lost ideal of picturing the world, not to say for some favourite traditional picture. But the content and style of Schrodinger's texts of the 1950's do not agree at all with this melancholic appraisal; they rather set the stage for a thorough renewal of accepted representations. In order to elucidate this paradox, I adopted several strategies.

American Culture in Peril

Pdf American Culture in Peril
Genre Political Science
Author Charles W. Dunn
Isbn 081314065X
File size 720 kb
Year 2012-03-21
Pages 184
Language English
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Thirty years ago, Ronald Reagan rode a wave of patriotism to the White House by calling for a return to what he considered to be traditional American values--personal liberty, free markets, and limited government. After the cultural struggles and generational clashes of the 1960s and 70s, it appeared that many Americans were eager to abide by Reagan's set of core American principles. Yet, despite Reagan's continuing popularity, modern America remains widely perceived as a nation weakened by its divisions. While debates over cultural values have been common throughout the country's history, they seem particularly vitriolic today. Some argue that these differences have resulted in a perpetually gridlocked government caught between left and right, red states and blue. Since the American Founding, commonly shared cultural values have been considered to be the glue that would bind the nation's citizens together. However, how do we identify, define and interpret the foundations of American culture in a profoundly divided, pluralistic country? In American Culture in Peril, Charles W. Dunn assembles top scholars and public intellectuals to examine Reagan's impact on American culture in the twenty-first century. The contributors assess topics vital to our conversations about American culture and society, including changing views of the family, the impact of popular culture, and the evolving relationship between religion, communities, and the state. Others investigate modern liberalism and the possibilities of reclaiming a renewed conservatism today. American Culture in Peril illuminates Reagan's powerful legacy and investigates whether his traditional view of American culture can successfully compete in postmodern America. Contributors Hadley Arkes Paul A. Cantor Allan Carlson Jean Bethke Elshtain Charles R. Kesler Wilfred M. McClay Ken Myers

Dictionary of World Philosophy

Pdf Dictionary of World Philosophy
Genre Philosophy
Author A. Pablo Iannone
Isbn 1134680449
File size 1771 kb
Year 2013-04-15
Pages 576
Language English
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The Dictionary of World Philosophy covers the diverse and challenging terminology, concepts, schools and traditions of the vast field of world philosophy. Providing an extremely comprehensive resource and an essential point of reference in a complex and expanding field of study the Dictionary covers all major subfields of the discipline. Key features: * Cross-references are used to highlight interconnections and the cross-cultural diffusion and adaptation of terms which has taken place over time * The user is led from specific terms to master entries which provide valuable historical and cultural context * Each master entry is followed by at least two suggestions for further reading on the subject, creating a substantial bibliography of world philosophy * References extend beyond philosophy to related areas such as cognitive science, computer science, language and physics Subdisciplines covered include:* aesthetics * ethics * sociopolitical philosophy * the philosophy of law * epistemology * logic * the philosophy of science * the philosophy of mind * the philosophy of culture and history * metaphysics * the philosophy of religion Entries are drawn from West Africa, Arabic, Chinese, Indian, Japanese, Jewish, Korean, Latin American, Maori and Native American philosophy including the important and so far largely neglected instance of Pre-Hispanic thought: Nahua philosophy.

Approaches to Teaching the History of the English Language

Pdf Approaches to Teaching the History of the English Language
Genre Language Arts & Disciplines
Author Mary Hayes,Allison Burkette
Isbn 0190611065
File size 1707 kb
Year 2017-08-29
Pages 350
Language English
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The History of the English Language has been a standard university course offering for over 150 years. Yet relatively little has been written about teaching a course whose very title suggests its prodigious chronological, geographic, and disciplinary scope. In the nineteenth century, History of the English Language courses focused on canonical British literary works. Since these early curricula were formed, the English language has changed, and so have the courses. In the twenty-first century, instructors account for the growing prominence of World Englishes as well as the English language's transformative relationship with the internet and social media. Approaches to Teaching the History of the English Language addresses the challenges and circumstances that the course's instructors and students commonly face. The volume reads as a series of "master classes" taught by experienced instructors who explain the pedagogical problems that inspired resourceful teaching practices. Although its chapters are authored by seasoned teachers, many of whom are preeminent scholars in their individual fields, the book is designed for instructors at any career stage-beginners and veterans alike. The topics addressed in Approaches to Teaching the History of the English Language include: the unique pedagogical dynamic that transpires in language study; the course's origins and relevance to current university curricula; scholarly approaches that can offer an abiding focus in a semester-long course; advice about navigating the course's formidable chronological ambit; ways to account for the language's many varieties; and the course's substantial and pedagogical relationship to contemporary multimedia platforms. Each chapter balances theory and practice, explaining in detail activities, assignments, or discussion questions ready for immediate use by instructors.

The Social Origins of Modern Science

Pdf The Social Origins of Modern Science
Genre History
Author P. Zilsel
Isbn 9401141428
File size 329 kb
Year 2013-03-07
Pages 267
Language English
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Here, for the first time, is a single volume in English that contains all the important historical essays Edgar Zilsel (1891-1944) published during WWII on the emergence of modern science. It also contains one previously unpublished essay and an extended version of an essay published earlier. This volume is unique in its well-articulated social perspective on the origins of modern science and is of major interest to students in early modern social history/history of science, professional philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science.

A Short History of Nearly Everything

Pdf A Short History of Nearly Everything
Genre Science
Author Bill Bryson
Isbn 0385674503
File size 1139 kb
Year 2012-05-15
Pages 624
Language English
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One of the world’s most beloved and bestselling writers takes his ultimate journey -- into the most intriguing and intractable questions that science seeks to answer. In A Walk in the Woods, Bill Bryson trekked the Appalachian Trail -- well, most of it. In In A Sunburned Country, he confronted some of the most lethal wildlife Australia has to offer. Now, in his biggest book, he confronts his greatest challenge: to understand -- and, if possible, answer -- the oldest, biggest questions we have posed about the universe and ourselves. Taking as territory everything from the Big Bang to the rise of civilization, Bryson seeks to understand how we got from there being nothing at all to there being us. To that end, he has attached himself to a host of the world’s most advanced (and often obsessed) archaeologists, anthropologists, and mathematicians, travelling to their offices, laboratories, and field camps. He has read (or tried to read) their books, pestered them with questions, apprenticed himself to their powerful minds. A Short History of Nearly Everything is the record of this quest, and it is a sometimes profound, sometimes funny, and always supremely clear and entertaining adventure in the realms of human knowledge, as only Bill Bryson can render it. Science has never been more involving or entertaining.

Sins against Science

Pdf Sins against Science
Genre Political Science
Author Lynda Walsh
Isbn 0791481166
File size 732 kb
Year 2016-09-14
Pages 308
Language English
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Recounts the fake news stories, written from 1830 to 1880, about scientific and technological discoveries, and the effect these hoaxes had on readers and their trust in science. Lynda Walsh explores a provocative era in American history—the proliferation of fake news stories about scientific and technological discoveries from 1830 to 1880. These hoaxes, which fooled thousands of readers, offer a first-hand look at an intriguing guerilla tactic in the historical struggle between arts and sciences in America. Focusing on the hoaxes of Richard Adams Locke, Edgar Allan Poe, Mark Twain, and Dan De Quille, the author combines rhetorical hermeneutics, linguistic pragmatics, and reader-response theory to answer three primary questions: How did the hoaxes work? What were the hoaxers trying to accomplish? And—what is a hoax? “Its careful examination of contemporary reader reactions to the hoaxes provides concrete evidence for what people actually believed—thus attesting very specifically to the nineteenth-century ‘assumptions about the real world’ that were being ‘called into question’ by the hoaxes impressively wide range of historical and theoretical resources are brought to bear on these ‘acts of reading.’ All of this is woven into a rich and nuanced account of what we stand to gain—in terms of understanding the past—by taking seriously a handful of little known jests.” — The Edgar Allen Poe Review “I found the book to be quite informative, not only as a technical exploration concerned with how readers interact with texts that promulgate hoaxes, but also as a work providing helpful glimpses of the emerging roles of science and media in this period.” — Thomas M. Lessl, The University of Georgia “As Walsh points out, there is no extended analysis of hoaxes in the rhetoric of science, and her book shows how important hoaxes are in understanding the history of professionalized science as it emerged in the United States. The relationship of science and the the public is of utmost importance in science studies, and the author has identified a key source of historical information about this relationship.” — Ellen Barton, coeditor of Discourse Studies in Composition